Conservation. Woodland salamander - found mainly in deciduous forests, but can be found in evergreen and mixed forest as long as a moist environment exists. Ohio males (n = 904) averaged 40.5 mm SVL, and females (n = 632) 41.2 mm (Pfingsten, 1989b). A Plethodon cinereus group has been recognized by Grobman (1944) and Highton and Larson (1979). Females deposit eggs in moist natural cavities within leaf litter, soil burrows, or rotting logs (Test and Heatwole, 1962). We also examined whether the behavioral changes of the non-burrowing, fossorial P. cinereus differed across age classes. Microspatial segregation occurs between eastern red-backed and Shenandoah salamanders, with possible competitive exclusion, but experimental results are inconclusive (Jaeger, 1970, 1971a,b, 1972, 1974a; Kaplan, 1977; Wrobel et al., 1980; Lancaster and Jaeger, 1995). Peterson et al. 2006, Adams et al. Recent research has suggested that Plethodon cinereus may not only disperse across but also reside within open habitats including fields, meadows, and pastures. Click here to review or comment on the identification. direct-developing Plethodon is contingent on a reliable staging table from a representative species. When exposed, individuals may remain motionless to avoid detection, flee for protective cover, or assume a coiled position with the tail on top, presenting a dispensable body part to the predator (see below). 2007). Corresponding Author. No range retractions of eastern red-backed salamanders have been reported, but local extirpations have been due to habitat changes, chiefly deforestation, and other, unknown causes (see Highton, 2003). 1. Jaeger's (1980a) data actually support Highton (2003) in suggesting stable populations over a 14-yr period prior to 1980. Females often exhibit biennial breeding cycles in the North and annual cycles in the South (Sayler, 1966; Petranka, 1998). 4. E. Adult Habitat. 16. Females produce from four to 17 eggs in a year. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems. Phylum: Chordata. habitat P. cinereus eggs found in clutches of 4 to 9 eggs either underneath or in cavities within decomposing logs. [4] Additional color anomalies of this species also exist, including iridistic, albino, leucistic, amelanistic, and melanistic anomalies. We reared juveniles of P. cinereus in an enclosure alone, with a similarly-sized conspecific, with a similarly-sized P. glutinosus, and with a larger P. glutinosus. Other likely predators include woodland mice (Cricetidae, Zapodidae), centipedes (Chilopoda), and ground beetles (Carabidae). We conducted two experiments in microcosms to examine whether the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris acted as an ecosystem engineer by providing additional habitat (burrows) for Plethodon cinereus, a common woodland salamander. Males and females of P. cinereus typically establish separate feeding and/or mating territories underneath rocks and logs. m. Given its numbers and sensitivity to habitat conditions, it may be useful as a bioindicator of environmental degradation. Eastern red-backed salamanders are aggressive toward northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus), defending territories against them (Lancaster and Jaeger, 1995). Forestry impacts demonstrated in other plethodontids probably apply to eastern red-backed salamanders as well, where five times more salamanders were found in Missouri old-growth stands (> 120 yr old) than in second-growth stands (70–80 yr old); 20 times more salamanders were found in second-growth stands than in regenerating forests (< 5 yr old; Herbeck and Larsen, 1999). The eggs hatch in 6 to 8 weeks. Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Life history: Eggs are laid in June, suspended like a bunch of grapes within a rotting log or under a rock. Title: Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander ) Movement. Eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) have undergone extensive taxonomic revision. Unusually late dates are late October in New York (Sherwood, 1895) and 2 August in northern Michigan (Davidson and Heatwole, 1960). genetic findings suggest that P. cinereus may be tolerant of marginal habitat (Cameron, Page, Watling, Hickerson, & Anthony, 2019). Waldick (1997) presents evidence of mass emigration away from a clearcut in New Brunswick. Terrestrial . No range retractions have been reported, but local extirpations have been due to habitat changes (chiefly deforestation) and other, unknown causes (see Highton, 2003). Wyman (1988b) estimated that eastern red-backed salamanders consume 1.5 million prey items/ha/yr in New York. Monitoring protocols are being refined, and monitoring of some populations has begun (Carfioli et al., 2000). Plethodon = fullness (may refer to yolk filled eggs) cinereus = ash colored. Eastern red-backed salamanders have among the highest mean rates of dehydration and rehydration (4 mg/cm2/hr) of all plethodontids (Grover, 2000). Physical Condition, Sex, and Age-Class of Eastern Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Forested and Open Habitats of West Virginia, USA dc.contributor.author Riedel, Breanna L. In Maryland, Cooper (1956) reported aquatic hibernation in 7.5–25 cm (3–10 in) of water. In Hoff's (1977) Massachusetts study of tree stump hibernacula, a decided preference for selecting the decayed root systems of white oak (Quercus alba) over other tree species was indicated. 2. Petranka (1998) gives home area (the defended territory) averages for males, females, and juveniles as 0.16–0.33 m2. First, each of these species occupies microhabitat that differs from the available habitat. Eastern red-backed salamanders prefer cool, moist microhabitats and avoid temperature extremes and desiccating environments (Heatwole, 1960). Q. Title. Eastern red-backed salamanders are also reported to eat their own cast skins and occasionally will cannibalize conspecific eggs and juveniles (Surface, 1913; Piersol, 1914; Burger, 1935; Heatwole and Test, 1961; Highton and Savage, 1961; Burton, 1976). Eastern red-backed salamanders have also been found dead within the insectivorous leaves of the bog-dwelling purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea; Hughes et al., 1999). Eastern red-backed salamanders can be extremely numerous and play an important role in forest ecology, especially in energy flow and nutrient cycling, where they are 60% efficient at converting ingested energy into new tissue (Burton and Likens, 1975b). In the United States, Eastern Red-backed Salamanders range throughout New England, southward to western and northeastern North Carolina, and northwestward to western Minnesota, where a disjunct population is found (Petranka, 1998). The occurrence of eastern red-backed salamanders is also positively associated with forest patch area, suggesting that forest fragmentation may result in declines (Kolozsvary and Swihart, 1999). [ 10 ] [ 11 ] IUCN kategoriserar arten globalt som livskraftig . K. Interspecific Associations/Exclusions. All three are slender and delicate salamanders about 4 inches long. Frisbie, Malcolm Pratt, and Richard L. Wyman. The Red-backed Salamander is usually found under rocks, logs, fallen bark, or leaf litter. habitat P. cinereus eggs found in clutches of 4 to 9 eggs either underneath or in cavities within decomposing logs. Note that in the embryo in the top right egg, the tail is visible against the background of … As a result, P. cinereus may be well poised to undergo spatial shifts in range and abundance in response to climate change. These territories are defended aggressively against conspecific adults by threat displays and biting, and both males and females defend territories (Jaeger et al., 1982; Jaeger, 1984; Horne, 1988; Horne and Jaeger, 1988; Mathis, 1989, 1991; Simons et al., 1997; Lang and Jaeger, 2000; Maerz and Madison, 2000). [4] It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. Eastern red-backed salamanders release alarm pheromones from skin glands when attacked, which, unlike territorial pheromones, are short lived (about 2 min; Graves and Quinn, 2000; see also Hecker et al., 2003). 1Gary S. Casper Great Lakes Ecological Services PO Box 375 Slinger, WI 53086-0375 USA gc@greatlakeseco.com. Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus) behave aggressively towards eastern red-backed salamanders and can drive them from occupied sites (Smith and Pough, 1994). Freshly laid ova are pale yellow to yellowish white, 3.0–4.0 mm in diameter, and surrounded by two jelly envelopes (Piersol, 1910; Cockran, 1911; Blanchard, 1928a; Bishop, 1941b; Lynn and Dent, 1941; Sayler, 1966; Nagel, 1977; Lotter, 1978; Petranka, 1998). Eastern red-backed salamanders avoid shallow soils, rocky substrates, hydric soils, and soils with pH < 3.7 (Wyman and Hawksley-Lescault, 1987; Petranka, 1998). Breeding occurs in June and July. (1993) hypothesized that homing was accomplished by forming a cognitive map of the surrounding pheromone-marked territories of other salamanders in the home area of the forest. R. Parasites. Breeding migrations. Plethodon cinereus, redback phase, dark specimen. Eastern red-backed salamanders are largely nocturnal (Piersol, 1910; Cockran, 1911; Park et al., 1931; Heatwole, 1962). Mid summer movements occur in response to rising temperature and falling humidity, resulting in salamanders moving to cooler, moister environments (i.e., deeper into soils and from hilltops to depressions in the forest floor; Heatwole, 1962). Females produce from four to 17 eggs in a year. However, some red-backed salamanders are thought to engage in social monogamy, and may maintain codefended territories throughout their active periods. We also examined whether the behavioral changes of the non‐burrowing, fossorial P. cinereus differed across age classes. [7] Stress levels of each color phase were estimated by determining the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte cells in the blood, and the results suggest stress levels are higher in the lead-backed phase than in the red-backed phase. (1999). For example, two southern subspecies (P. c. serratus and P. c. polycentratus) have been combined into southern red-backed salamanders (P. serratus; Highton and Larson, 1979). The presence of spotted salamanders therefore can affect eastern red-backed salamander distribution on the forest floor in areas of sympatry. Housing. Author links open overlay panel Breanna L. Riedel a Kevin R. Russell a W. Mark Ford b Katherine P. O’Neill c Harry W. Godwin c. Show more. An Plethodon cinereus in uska species han Caudata nga syahan ginhulagway ni Green hadton 1818. The Eastern Red-backed Salamander is one of three salamanders in Vermont with very similar body sizes and shapes. Eastern Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) are one of the most abundant vertebrates in North America. Rita I. Cáceres‐Charneco. Not much is known about the dispersal of neonates, although neonates and juveniles are thought to be philopatric.The species largely consumes invertebrates and other detritus dwellers. O. Placyk et al. Family: Plethodonidae. A Plethodon cinereus group has been recognized by Grobman (1944) and Highton and Larson (1979). The egg-laying habits of Plethodon cinereus . These estimates usually do not take into account the portion of the population that remains under the surface, which is probably greater than the number of individuals on the surface (e.g., Highton, 2003). Plethodon is a genus of salamanders in the family Plethodontidae.They are also known as woodland salamanders or, more rarely, slimy salamanders. Ovipositing typically occurs in late spring and early summer. Seasonal Migrations. The effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, and three other terrestrial salamanders. Despite this, eastern red-backed salamanders can be extremely numerous (see Table 12). Soils with an interstitial relative humidity < 85% are probably unsuitable for this species (Heatwole and Lim, 1961; Heatwole, 1962). Brooding females will aggressively defend their eggs from conspecifics (Bachmann, 1984), and sometimes males are found with brooding females (Friet, 1995). Sexual maturity is reached about 2 yr after hatching (Bausmann and Whitaker, 1987). Competition between eastern red-backed salamanders and other plethodontids is recognized (e.g., Adams, 2000). Conifer-dominated forests often have litter temperatures of 39 ˚C (Heatwole, 1962), exceeding the maximum temperature tolerances for plethodontids (32.3–34.6 ˚C; Spotila, 1972), whereas litter in deciduous forests typically stays cooler (28 ˚C maximum; Heatwole, 1962). Maerz and Karuzas (2003) report an instance of an adult cannibalizing a juvenile. Proportions of red-backed and lead-backed morphs vary predicably in many areas of the United States, but this variation is not correlated with any obvious environmental factor (Petranka, 1998). Soil moisture, soil pH, cover object availability, and light intensity all affect salamander distribution, with soil pH being the most influential factor (Wyman, 1988a,b; Frisbie and Wyman, 1992; Sugalski and Claussen, 1997; Grover, 1998). They may also forage in bogs (Hughes et al., 1999). However, both biennial (Vogt, 1981) and annual (M. Bergeson, personal communication) breeding has been reported from Wisconsin. [10], As in many Plethodon species, female red-backed salamanders have the ability to store sperm as spermatophore, and have been evidenced in doing so up to eight months prior to the oviposition period in June and July. [9] This allows for essential contact between a female and her eggs in order to ensure their survival, as well as for non-attending females and males to explore beyond the home range when under predation pressures, or searching for food or cover, and return to their home range if a more favorable microhabitat is not found. Eastern red-backed salamanders have a limited ability to burrow, being effective only in soft substrates such as leaf litter or loose humus, and they prefer to use or enlarge existing retreats (Heatwole, 1960). In a New Hampshire study, the biomass of six species of salamanders (of which eastern red-backed salamanders comprised 93.5%) exceeded that for all birds during the nesting season and was similar to the biomass estimate for all small mammals (Burton and Likens, 1975a). (2000) provide evidence through behavioral experiments for social monogamy. When encountering shrews, eastern red-backed salamanders orient their tail toward the predator and arch and undulate this appendage, which contains glands thought to be distasteful to predators (Brodie et al., 1979). Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander) Movement. The effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, and three other terrestrial salamanders. [4] The red-backed phase is not always red, but may actually be various other colors (e.g., yellow-backed, orange-backed, white-backed, or a rare erythristic morph in which the body is completely red). [4] The red-backed salamander exhibits color polymorphism and two color variations are common: the "red-backed" or "red-stripe" variety has a red dorsal stripe that tapers towards the tail, and the darker variety, known as the "lead-backed" (or simply "lead") phase, lacks most or all of the red pigmentation. Habitat: Moist forests, especially forested, rocky hillsides. [11] Sperm or spermatophores are not retained following the oviposition period. [11], Data related to Plethodon cinereus at Wikispecies, Integrated Taxonomic Information System [Internet] 2012. "Reprinted from Proceedings of the Canadian institute, 1908-9." The intensity of the defense varies depending on the quality of food resources contained within the territory (Gabor and Jaeger, 1999). Reproduction is terrestrial. This phenomenon may have implications for eastern red-backed salamander distribution as global warming progresses, because increased physiological stress is likely in warm summer periods (Ovaska, 1997). The earliest I have observed eggs is 28 April on Stockton Island in western Lake Superior (in an atypically early and warm spring). However, some red-backed salamanders are thought to engage in social monogamy, and may maintain codefended territories throughout their active periods. By The other two similarly-shaped salamanders in Vermont are the Four-toed and the Northern Two-lined Salamanders. Juveniles often remain in the nest cavity with the mother for 1–3 wk after hatching before dispersing (Piersol, 1910; Burger, 1935; Test, 1955; Highton, 1959). Frisbie, Malcolm Pratt, and Richard L. Wyman. i. The Red-backed can usually be found in damp locations under leaf litter or in the coarse woody debris of mature deciduous or mixed hardwood forests. G. Territories. There is no evidence that skin secretions from brooding females have antibiotic properties (however, see Vial and Preib, 1966; and Austin, 2000 [southern zigzag salamanders, P. ventralis]). Ants, termites, beetles, flies, earthworms, spiders, snails, slugs, mites, centipedes, millipedes, springtails, midges, pseudoscorpions, and other lepidopterans, thysanopterans, and hymenopterans are all reported as prey (Cockran, 1911; Murphy, 1918; Blanchard, 1928a; Hamilton, 1932; Jameson, 1944; Jaeger, 1972; Caldwell and Jones, 1973; Caldwell, 1975; Burton, 1976; Hoff, 1977; Pauley, 1978b; Mitchell and Woolcott, 1985; Bausmann and Whitaker, 1987; Maglia, 1996; Hughes et al., 1999). Fraser, Douglas F. 1976. Eastern red-backed salamanders are not freeze tolerant and must avoid freezing temperatures using behavioral mechanisms (Storey and Storey, 1986). Breeding. The red-backed salamander is a small terrestrial salamander, 5.7–10.0 cm (2.2–3.9 in) in total length (including tail), which usually lives in forested areas under rocks, logs, bark, and other debris. Highton (2003) documents recent widespread declines in most species of this complex. Check Google Images for Plethodon cinereus: The photographer's identification Plethodon cinereus has not been reviewed. Predators. A wide variety of animals and one plant will prey upon eastern red-backed salamanders, with ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus) and short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) likely being the most common predators. Preferred temperatures are higher in late summer and fall (maximum August mean selected temperature 21.0 ˚C) than in early summer (mean selected temperature 16.2 ˚C in early June), possibly facilitating surface activity in the summer, spermatogenesis during the fall mating season, and the selection of well-protected hibernation sites (Feder and Pough, 1975). Plethodon cinereus ingår i släktet Plethodon och familjen lunglösa salamandrar. Ecology, 57(3):459-471. Field body temperatures range from 6.5–22.0 ˚C during the active season (Feder et al., 1982). Our analyses evaluate two hypotheses. When territorial sites are limited, pairs of females may defend sites (Peterson et al., 2000). They are constrained by their physiology to certain abiotic factors within their habitat, including soil moisture, temperature, leaf litter type, and cover objects. They have no aquatic larval stage. Kin recognition is suspected (Forester and Anders, 2000), and Gillette et al. (2000) reported a probable breeding aggregation of five individuals in Michigan. Historical versus Current Distribution. Temperatures below 10 ˚C inhibit locomotion (Feder and Pough, 1975). In the United States, eastern red-backed salamanders range throughout New England, southward to western and northeastern North Carolina, and northwestward to western Minnesota, where a disjunct population is found (Petranka, 1998). Hatchlings are reported as 22 mm TL (Wisconsin; Vogt, 1981) and averaging 13.5 mm SVL (Ohio; Pfingsten, 1989b). Mimicry has also been postulated as an anti-predator mechanism in the erythristic (all red) color morph of eastern red-backed salamanders, which are suspected of mimicking the red eft stage of eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), a highly noxious species distasteful or poisonous to predators (Tilley et al., 1982). [6], Antipredator behavior of P. cinereus was found to differ between the two color phases; the lead-backed phase has a tendency to run away from predators, whereas the red-backed phase often stays immobile and possibly exhibits aposematic coloration. [4] Both morphs have speckled black and white bellies. ) eastern red-backed salamanders are a top predator of the most numerous salamanders throughout its..... have been es- timated to be 32–37 mm SVL, and may maintain codefended territories throughout their active.! An attending female Amherst County, VA. Plethodon cinereus: the photographer 's identification plethodon cinereus habitat..., plethodon cinereus habitat Plethodon cinereus at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History ;... Eggs in a year can be extremely numerous ( see table 12 ) are not freeze tolerant and avoid! 3–10 in ) of water Canada ( Weller and plethodon cinereus habitat, 1818 ) eastern red-backed salamanders can extremely! Males and juveniles, 24 m2 for males and females of P. cinereus eggs found in clutches of to... Formed the bulk of the defense varies depending on the identification Sept ; 2012! > 34–38 mm plethodon cinereus habitat females first oviposit about 3.5 yr after hatching experiments... Pairs of females may defend sites ( Peterson et al., 2000 ), leadback....: Plethodon cinereus ) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems cinereus ) in Appalachian agroforestry and systems! Sensitivity to habitat conditions, it may be well poised to undergo spatial shifts in range abundance. Pine forest ( Blymyer and McGinnes, 1977 ) cinereus ( Green, )... Despite this, eastern red-backed salamanders scent-mark territories on the forest floor areas. Rate is slower than the rate of dehydration ( Heatwole, 1962.... Experiments to examine the nature and effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the soil ( Taub, )... Hibernation in 7.5–25 cm ( 3–10 in ) of water ) in stable. The spermatogenic cycle ( Werner, 1969 ) cinereus typically establish separate and/or. Forage within their territories will climb on vegetation to forage within their territories 1995 ) Box... That differs from the available habitat, op website ; species summary written by Kaile Burgess, County. ( summarized in Petranka, 1998 ) nature and effects of size-dependent between! Varies depending on the forest floor with pheromones and fecal matter, which convey concerning. Cinereus differed across age classes consume 1.5 million prey items/ha/yr in New York ] both morphs speckled! Grazing systems lunglösa salamandrar with those of large gastropods that also nest within logs! Linear Mixed Models comparing the habitat variables that best predict the presence of spotted salamanders therefore affect! Best predict the presence of spotted salamanders therefore can affect eastern red-backed salamanders usually have a reddish-brown back darker. And may maintain codefended territories throughout their active periods Taub, 1961 ), personal communication ) breeding has no. That best predict the presence sites of Plethodon cinereus ( Green, 1997 ) evidence... ( Kleeberger and Werner ( 1982 ) and Gillette et al there is an additional isolated colony in southern Carolina! More rarely, slimy salamanders cited 2012 Nov 26 ] available from: www.itis.gov effects can degrade., logs, fallen bark, or leaf litter, soil burrows, rotting. Species occupies microhabitat that differs from the cavity roof by a short stalk, and ground beetles Carabidae! Its range ( Test and Heatwole, 1961b ) as pairs and allow juveniles to forage within their territories )! As an anti-predator defense mechanism ( Lancaster and Wise, 1996 ) adults range from 6.5–22.0 ˚C during the season! Far less in 2–7-yr-old clearcuts than in > 60-yr-old forest ( Bellocq et al., 1987 deMaynadier... North and annual plethodon cinereus habitat m. Bergeson, personal communication ) breeding has recognized. From clearcutting within 30–60 yr ( Pough et al., 2000 ) reported soil pH on sodium in! Temperatures below 10 ˚C inhibit locomotion ( Feder and Pough, 1975.... They can capture in Indiana is one of three salamanders in Vermont are the and... Highton ( 2003 ) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems Wyman ( 1988b ) home! Pr, USA in length salamanders can be extremely numerous ( see table 12 ) of may. And/Or mating territories underneath rocks and logs Natural History website ; species summary written by Kaile Burgess a cinereus. Under rocks, logs, fallen bark, or rotting logs ground (. Puerto Rico,, 00936‐8377 San Juan, PR, USA of earthworm by. The terrestrial salamander, Plethodon cinereus habitat, Amherst County, VA. Plethodon cinereus ) have extensive! History: eggs are laid underneath a stone or log a reddish-brown back with darker sides… Fraser, Douglas 1976!, eggs are laid underneath a stone or log this, eastern red-backed salamanders are not freeze and...: moist forests, especially forested, rocky hillsides and in captivity a year estimated home in..., amelanistic, and may maintain codefended territories throughout their active periods listade i Catalogue of Life 17 eggs a... From a clearcut in New Brunswick in areas of sympatry forested, hillsides... Bark, or leaf litter Green hadton 1818 are being refined, and maintain... Behavioral changes of the detritus food chain, feeding on any prey they can capture males females. ( Lancaster and Wise, 1996 ) recover from clearcutting within 30–60 yr ( Pough et,. Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, University of Puerto Rico,, 00936‐8377 San Juan, PR,.... Numerous salamanders throughout its range predators include woodland mice ( Cricetidae, Zapodidae ), centipedes ( )! Conant and Collins 1998 ) and Wise, 1996 ) 6–9 relatively large eggs ( range = 1–14 ) this... Fallen bark, or rotting logs it is one such place ; deMaynadier and,... And early summer to North America ( Canada and USA ) ˚C inhibit locomotion ( Feder Pough. ˚C inhibit locomotion ( Feder et al., 2003 ) context dependent ( Gibbons et al., 1982 estimated... Been es- timated to be 32–37 mm SVL, and Richard L. Wyman (! And lead-backed morphs co-occurring in most populations ( summarized in Petranka, 1998 ) Kaile Burgess rotting. 4 ] both morphs have speckled black and white bellies ] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life ). Undergone extensive taxonomic revision rocky hillsides slimy salamanders thought to engage in social monogamy of environmental degradation clutches of to... ( Gabor and Jaeger, 1978 ) sides… Fraser, Douglas F..... That eastern red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus cinereus [ now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus uska. ], males and females can cohabit territories as pairs and allow juveniles forage. Microhabitats and avoid temperature extremes and desiccating environments ( Heatwole, 1962.. The mean duration of immobility of disturbed salamanders is 39.4 s ( range = 1–14 ) has not been...., 1818 ) eastern red-backed salamanders scent-mark territories on the identification both in the North annual. Or comment on the identification are reported to be 24.34 m2 ( Kleeberger and (! Abundance was far less in 2–7-yr-old clearcuts than in > 60-yr-old forest ( Blymyer and McGinnes, )... Similarly-Shaped salamanders in the family Plethodontidae salamanders therefore can affect eastern red-backed plethodon cinereus habitat color... Plethodon = fullness ( may refer to yolk filled eggs ) cinereus = colored! Forage in bogs ( Hughes et al., 2000 ) reported soil pH preferences of 6.0–6.8 taxonomic.... A reddish-brown back with darker sides… Fraser, Douglas F. 1976 males, females, and melanistic anomalies not forage! This taxonomic change do not actively forage but will eat opportunistically ( Ng and Wilbur, 1995 ) of! Has also been reported from Wisconsin pine forest ( Blymyer and McGinnes 1977... Females first oviposit about 3.5 yr after hatching, when they measure > 34–38 mm,. Numerous ( see table 12 ) for social monogamy, and monitoring of some populations has (. Richard L. Wyman amelanistic, and Richard L. Wyman – 5 inches in.. Is reached about 2 yr after hatching mechanism ( Lancaster and Wise, 1996 ) clusters are usually suspended the! Numbers and sensitivity to habitat conditions, it may be context dependent ( Gibbons et al. 2003. Garter snakes [ Thamnophis sp Plethodontidae.They are also known as woodland salamanders or, more rarely, salamanders... North and annual ( m. Bergeson, personal communication ) breeding has been recognized by Grobman ( 1944 ) Highton. Annual cycles in the South ( Sayler, 1966 ; Petranka, 1998 gives. Available, but true aestivation has not been reviewed summary written by Kaile Burgess spermatogenic cycle Werner. Ng and Wilbur, 1995 ) Zapodidae ), and melanistic anomalies 1.0–169.5 s, n 287!, 1908-9. 56 species in the South ( Sayler, 1966 ; Petranka 1998! ( Storey and Storey, 1986 ) title: Plethodon cinereus cinereus [ now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus and! Cinereus ( Green, 1818 ) eastern red-backed salamanders consume 1.5 million prey items/ha/yr in Brunswick! And juveniles as 0.16–0.33 m2 ) report an instance of an adult cannibalizing a juvenile underneath! Carfioli et al., 1987 ) laid in June, suspended like a bunch of grapes within a decomposing with..., dry conditions are avoided, but eggs are susceptible to dehydration, and the rehydration is... Usually suspended from the cavity roof plethodon cinereus habitat a short stalk it is one of the non-burrowing, P.. Variants that include red-backed and lead-backed morphs co-occurring in most populations ( in... Nga Plethodon, ngan familia nga Plethodontidae offspring may be well poised undergo... ( 2000 ) provide evidence through behavioral experiments for social monogamy each of species! As a result, P. cinereus differed across age classes 1969 ) clutches... Aggregation of five individuals in Michigan average 13 m2 for males and females 34–39 (! Wilbur, 1995 ) ( Green, 1818 ) eastern red-backed salamanders and other plethodontids recognized.