PSC 2010 BPS - Lecture Notes Introduction to Radioactivity See the “ Nuclear Chemistry ” Module at Visionlearning.com for more information. A chain of decays takes place until a stable nucleus is reached. There are 4 types of nuclear radiation… In this note you can find various information about Types of Radioactive Decay, Positron Particle, Decay Series, Nuclear Transformation, Transuranium Elements, Half-Life as well as Radiocarbon Dating. This nuclear process is called nuclear decay. 2 Majid Bahrami Fig. This nuclear notation uses a subscript to the lower left to record the number of protons, whereas the superscript to the upper left is the mass number, the total number of … Many nuclei are radioactive. Nuclear Changes Radioactivity - the process by which an unstable nucleus emits one or more particles or energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Alpha rays, which could barely penetrate a piece of paper 2. Gamma rays, which could penetrate several centimeters of lead We now know that alpha rays are helium nuclei, beta rays are electrons, and gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation covers a wide range of wavelength, from 10-10 µm for cosmic rays to 1010 µm for electrical power waves. Radioactivity Lecture 5 The Nature and Laws of Radioactivity . Figures are from the textbook. As shown in Fig. Radioactivity 1. Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation, which usually results in the change of an is the spontaneous emission of radiation, which usually results in the change of an Discovery of Radioactivity• Henri Bequerel (1852-1908)• During his studies of phosphorescence (1896), found a mineral (uranium) would darken a photographic plate even if the plate was wrapped.• Found that this mineral emitted a new kind of radiation (X-rays … Radioactivity 2. For chemical purposes, the most important types of radiation are alpha and beta particles. Nuclear radiation - the particles and energy that are released from the nucleus during radioactive decay. Radioactive rays were observed to be of three types: 1. Beta rays, which could penetrate 3 mm of aluminum 3. 1 Radioactivity Emission of high energy photons and particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays Elements heavier than lead (Z=82), are radioactive Radioactive materials emit: –alpha particles (helium nucleus) –beta particles (electrons) –gamma rays (electromagnetic radiation) How can we tell the difference between these? This means they are unstable, and will eventually decay by emitting a particle, transforming the nucleus into another nucleus, or into a lower energy state. Radioactive decay. Nuclear Physics Lecture Notes (online reference) This note covers the following topics: Nuclear sizes and isotope shifts, The Semi Empirical Mass Formula, Coulomb term, Volume and Surface term, Asymmetry term, Pairing term, alpha decay, beta decay, Valley of stability, Fermi theory of beta decay, Selection Rules in beta … Changing Z to N or N to Z Adding a proton (electron) ... Bq notes a single decay event Example: the human body is radioactive with an activity of: 2.2⋅10-7 Ci = 0.22µCi ⇒ 8000 Bq = 8 kBq . This process releases light, in proportion to the original radiation dose. Chapter 12, E&CE 309, Spring 2005. 12-1: Electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, the Nuclear Energy also has … • Its traverse (10-100cm) in air, and (1-3 cm) in soft ti ssues. During radioactive decay, principles of conservation apply. Later, the crystal is exposed to a burst of laser light, which liberates the “trapped” electrons. 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