In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. He would be risking his nation, and he would not do it without reward, so if the war was won he would require a German port on the Baltic sea. King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden arrived too late to save Magdeburg, but at Breitenfeld he changed the course of the Thirty Years' War -- and the state of the military art. One problem that was encountered by the Protestants during this great war was that each of the nations was too concerned about its own welfare. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. After two years he again turned his attention to Germany. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch. But when a siege of Dantzic was begun, the Swedes were unable to capture it. Gustavus Adolphus – Thirty Years War. [102], French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. The Habsburg heir Archduke Ferdinand first required the return of all property taken from the Catholic church since 1552, rather than leaving the courts to decide case by case as previously. Gustavus’ challenges were not only in war with the Catholics, but also from diplomacy with the Protestants. This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively. [140], The extent to which these witch-hunts were symptomatic of the impact of the conflict on society is debatable, since many took place in areas relatively untouched by the war. [80] Cutting the Spanish Road had forced Madrid to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea and in October 1639 a large Spanish convoy was destroyed at the Battle of the Downs. While flight saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. [31], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Victories and Downfall – Part II This is the recounting of the dramatic life of the “The Golden King” and “The Lion of the North” Gustav Adolf, and the Swedish Empire during stormaktstiden – “the Great Power era”. This view is widely accepted by modern historians, although debate continues over the extent to which it was a European rather than German conflict, and the accuracy of the title 'Thirty Years'. As the Thirty Years War began to rage through Germany, Gustavus Adolphus wanted to join in the conflict, but he could not do it alone. [59], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. [125] Poor harvests throughout the 1630s and repeated plundering of the same areas led to widespread famine; contemporaries record people eating grass, or too weak to accept alms, while instances of cannibalism were common. Gustavus Adolphus and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence by C. R. L. Fletcher, Gustavus Adolphus - Lion of the Protestant Cause, The Wreck of Columbus’s Ship, the Santa Maria, May Have Been Found, Gustavus Adolphus – Lech River and Nuremberg, Gustavus Adolphus – Battle of Breitenfeld, Shackleton’s Ad – Men Wanted for Hazardous Journey, The Politics and Economics of Reconstruction, Hawaiian Princess Kapiolani – “My God is Jehovah”. Wholesale Orders Gustavus wrote to Oxenstiern, his chancellor: You say that we haven’t money to pay troops for more than four months: granted; but once let us plant our foothold sure, and God and the hour will teach us how to strengthen ourselves further. Gustavus Adolphus - Gustavus Adolphus - Entrance into the Thirty Years’ War: The motives prompting his intervention have long been a subject of historical controversy. In an event known as the Second Defenestration of Prague, the two men and their secretary Philip Fabricius were thrown out of the castle windows, although all three survived. [145], Arguably, France gained more from the Thirty Years' War than any other power; by 1648, most of Richelieu's objectives had been achieved. Having set his affairs with his neighbors in order, Gustavus was ready to face the Catholics of Germany. He was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634. They included Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein; in 1625 he intervened in Northern Germany until forced to withdraw in 1629. [25], As a result, when the Imperial Diet opened in February 1608, the Protestants demanded formal confirmation of the Augsburg settlement, which was especially significant for Calvinists like Frederick IV, Elector Palatine who had not been included. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. [142], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since 1555. Gustavus instead turned his eyes back to Poland. [23], Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. [86], While he accepted military victory was no longer possible, Ferdinand hoped to restrict peace negotiations to members of the Empire, excluding France and Sweden. He com… [69] He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. [124] Although regular outbreaks of disease were common for decades prior to 1618, the conflict greatly accelerated their spread. [62] With French resources tied up in Italy, he helped negotiate the September 1629 Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Poland, freeing Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war. Gustavus simply had to guarantee the right of Catholics in conquered land to practice their religion. [27] Some historians who see the war as primarily a European conflict argue Jülich marks its beginning, with Spain and Austria backing the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. In the October 1619 Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's electoral vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate. The main objective was to gain as much loot as possible before the war ended; they failed to take the Old Town but captured the Imperial library, along with treasures including the Codex Gigas, now in Stockholm. According to the opening narration, Krabat (2006) takes place at the time of the Thirty Years War… He was willing to put aside his differences with Christian of Denmark, but the rest of the Protestant powers would not agree to his requirements. Previously, many had overlapping, sometimes conflicting political and religious allegiances; they were now understood to be subject first and foremost to the laws and edicts of their respective state authority, not to the claims of any other entity, be it religious or secular. Victories in two of the wars brought new territory, expanding the Swedish empire. Sweden had little money and only one ally, Transylvania, which was far from his field of actions. Cardinal Richelieu, France’s main minister, arranged to give a large amount of money to Gustavus, paying him to fight the German Hapsburg Catholics. In October, von Hatzfeldt defeated a Swedish-English-Palatine force at Vlotho but the main Imperial army under Matthias Gallas abandoned North-East Germany to the Swedes, unable to sustain itself in the devastated area. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. [74], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. The Swedes were better provided with winter equipment, and they won some success, being treated as deliverers by the local Protestants. He did not think Sweden could stay out of the engulfing conflict much longer, “for the danger is daily drawing nearer our doors.” He was farsighted enough to see that with the Catholic armies controlling Northern Germany, they were but a step away from attacking Sweden. In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was formed to challenge this control and captured the Brazilian port of Salvador in 1624. [29], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] (listen)) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. On 5 November, news arrived that Ferdinand had signed peace treaties with France and Sweden on 24 October, ending the war. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilson1976 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFClodfelter2017 (. He did not have money to pay his troops for long, and even the German princes he was coming to support were not sure they wanted his help. Even after union, the Portuguese dominated the Atlantic trade in Triangular trade, exporting slaves from West Africa and Angola to work sugar plantations in Brazil. [95], This allowed the Swedes, now led by Wrangel, to put pressure on the peace talks by devastating first Westphalia, then Bavaria; by the autumn of 1646, Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting. [76], Ferdinand II died in February 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who faced a THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR (1618-1648). It was the struggle to secure religious liberty,–a warfare between Catholic and Protestant Germany. At sixteen he contested three wars, against the Russians, the Danes and the Poles. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. But he did embark boldly into the struggle, emploring the help of God in his cause. He is often [127] Nearly 50% of these losses appear to have been incurred during the first period of Swedish intervention from 1630 to 1635. [121] However, the conflict has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. While Denmark kept Schleswig and Holstein until 1864, this effectively ended its reign as the predominant Nordic state. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. [28], Outside powers became involved in an internal German dispute due to the imminent expiry of the 1609 Twelve Years' Truce, which suspended the war between Spain and the Dutch. [54], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. He spent much of his life at war. SWEDEN, FINLAND, GERMANY, POLAND, DENMARK. The financial issues were arranged soon after landing, from what might seem to us from an unexpected source – France. [88] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. Return Policy This ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.[18]. There is one at hand, who will help; who has already helped. Gustavus Adolphus once wrote that, “All wars in Europe hang together.” If Ferdinand was successful in creating a centralized Catholic Germany, Sweden would be in danger. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. Jun 8, 2017 - Explore Bill Wilks's board "Gustavus Adolphus" on Pinterest. So in 1625 Denmark entered into the war, and Gustavus resolved to stay out of it for the time. In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia. These concerns were exacerbated when a series of legal disputes over property were all decided in favour of the Catholic Church. [46] However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. [58], With Austrian resources stretched by the outbreak of the War of the Mantuan Succession, Wallenstein persuaded Ferdinand to agree relatively lenient terms in the June 1629 Treaty of Lübeck. [87] Richelieu died in December 1642, followed by Louis XIII on 14 May 1643, leaving the five-year-old Louis XIV as king. Store He attacked in 1625. Gustavus Adolphus lead Sweden during her glory years in the Thirty Years War. [130] The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be changed, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. As always, Gustavus was on the front lines, twice receiving minor wounds during the siege. Queen Christina (1933), a film starring Greta Garbo, opens with the death of Christina's father, King Gustavus Adolphus, at the Battle of Lützen in the Thirty Years' War. The treaty confirmed Dutch independence, although the Imperial Diet did not formally accept that it was no longer part of the Empire until 1728. [75] In the March 1636 Treaty of Wismar, France formally joined the Thirty Years War in alliance with Sweden; a Swedish army under Johan Banér entered Brandenburg and re-established their position in North-East Germany at Wittstock on 4 October 1636. [95] Sweden received an indemnity of five million thalers, the Imperial territories of Swedish Pomerania, and Prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; this gave them a seat in the Imperial Diet. A combined Imperial-Catholic League army funded by Maximilian and led by Count Tilly pacified Upper and Lower Austria before invading Bohemia, where they defeated Christian of Anhalt at the White Mountain in November 1620. He was well prepared for the greatest war of his life. [72] Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf. Backed by French subsidies, the Swedes and their German allies won a series of victories over Imperial forces, although Gustavus was killed in 1632. This agreement was gradually undermined by political and religious tensions, and in 1618 the Protestant-dominated Bohemian Estates deposed the Catholic Ferdinand II as King of Bohemia. [112], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. Although Richelieu was a powerful and necessary ally for Gustavus, he would also want to be sure the Swedes did not get too powerful, as their interests just happened to coincide in this instance. His successor Cardinal Mazarin continued the same general policy, while French gains in Alsace allowed him to re-focus on the war against Spain in the Netherlands. Aug 7, 2013 - GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, LION OF THE NORTH. In the end we cannot know how pure his motives and intentions were. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. Gustavus Adolphus was an accomplished soldier and with the help of Catholic France, he freed himself from the war against Poland with the Treaty of Altmark of September 1629. However, it was a compromise that failed to resolve underlying religious and political tensions within the Holy Roman Empire. [52] In early 1626, Cardinal Richelieu, main architect of the alliance, faced a new Huguenot rebellion at home and in the March Treaty of Monzón, France withdrew from Northern Italy, re-opening the Spanish Road. This was due to the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, the shifting locations of battle fronts, as well as the displacement of rural populations into already crowded cities. He asked for the opinion of each in writing, so that their opinion would not be quelled by others. [39], As a result, although Frederick accepted the crown and entered Prague in October 1619, his support gradually eroded over the next few months. Lack of a sense of 'shared community' resulted in atrocities such as the destruction of Magdeburg, in turn creating large numbers of refugees who were extremely susceptible to sickness and hunger. [64] The 1632 to 1634 Smolensk War is considered a separate but related part of the Thirty Years' War. [20] In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. He was also known for creating a revolutionary military technique that helped his military win several battles and attacks. [141] A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". [138] Mainz and Trier also witnessed the mass killing of suspected witches, as did Cologne, where Ferdinand of Bavaria presided over a particularly infamous series of witchcraft trials, including that of Katharina Henot, who was executed in 1627. Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. God has raised up for us a hero, a Gideon, the like of whom lives not among men, nor in history. Gustavus Adolphus left Sweden for Germany on May 19, 1630, never to return. I know well how united and diligent they are; well how disunited and slothful all those, who ought to be for us, have as yet proved themselves. Christian and Gustavus were able to arrange a treaty, which they signed in 1628, it was clear that Denmark would not fight Germany, as they had already been whipped by them. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Political influence of Evangelicalism in Latin America, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=1008423919, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. 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